Ampère 1775-1836

Celebrated for his contribution to electrodynamics. Ampere composed a treatise on conical sections by the age of 13. He earned a living coaching mathematics until his appointment as Professor of physics at Bourg. There he composed his "Considérations sur la théorie mathématique du jeu", on the strength of which he was appointed to a chair at Lyons and later to a lectureship in mathematical analysis at the École Polytechnique. Thereafter he lived in Paris, being appointed Inspector-General of the Imperial University in 1808 and Professor of Mechanics at the École Polytechnique in 1809. Later he taught physics at the Collège de France. He was elected F.R.S. in 1827.

His standing as a mathematician was confirmed by his election to the mathematical section of the Académie in 1814.

Beside his formula for the force between elements of current, Ampère introduced the notion of magnetic shells, showing that a closed electric circuit is equivalent in its magnetic effect to a certain distribution of magnetism over any surface bound by a given current.

His name is remembered in the unit of electric current.